Annotated General Tsunami References

International Tsunami Information Centre

Hosted by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, this site offers a wide variety of general, technical, and governmental information about tsunamis, including information about the most recent tsunami warnings.

National Weather Service TsunamiReady Program

This National Weather Service website provides information on the TsunamiReady Program, including application forms as well as publications.

US Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System

This program provides technical assistance to the Indian Ocean region for tsunami warning system development using an integrated, "end-to-end" approach. The IOTWS works under the direction and oversight of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

Annotated References for the Tsunami Warning Center Reference Guide

Chapter 2: Tsunami Warning Center Requirements Overview

IOC (2006), Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWS-II), Hyderabad India, Dec. 2005.

This PDF document provides the full meeting minutes/notes from the ICG/IOTWS-II (December 2005). Working groups focused on Seismic Measurements, Data Collection, and Exchange (Working Group 1 [WG1]), Sea Level Data Collection and Exchange, Including Deep Ocean Tsunami Detection Instruments (WG2), Risk Assessment (WG3), Modelling, Forecasting, and Scenario Development (WG4), and a System for Interoperable Advisory and Warning Centers (WG5).

UNESCO (2006), IOC Executive Council 39th Session, June 2006.

This PDF document provides the full meeting minutes/notes from the IOC Executive Council 39th Session (June 2006). Items discussed included General Policy Issues, Ocean Sciences, Ocean Observations and Services, Capacity-building, TEMA and Public Awareness, Regional Activities, United Nations Conventions and Agreements, and Tsunami Activities.

United Nations (2006), Global Survey of Early Warning Systems

A report prepared at the request of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Third International Conference on Early Warning, Bonn 27-29 March 2006. An assessment of capacities, gaps and opportunities toward building a comprehensive global early warning system for all natural hazards

Chapter 3: Earth Data Observation References

Seismology References

Ammon, Charles J. (2001). Seismic Waves and the Earth's Interior. Saint Louis University EAS-A193 Class Notes.

This course contains a section on Seismic Waves and Earth's Interior, with special attention to different wave types, refraction, reflection, dispersion, and Earth's internal structure, as well as additional useful content on earthquakes and earthquake hazards.

Andresen, Arild (2007). Learning Geosciences

A University of Oslo, Norway searchable web site devoted to learning modules in the geosciences, with geophysics (including seismology) being a major section.

Baxter, S.J. (2000). Earthquake Basics. Delaware Geological Survey Publication Number 23.

This report provides a brief overview of the causes of earthquakes, how earthquakes are measured, and a glossary of earthquake terminology. Italicized words within the text are defined in the glossary. This resource is meant for as a primer for the basic information of earthquakes.

Braile, L.W. 2006. Seismic Waves and the Slinky: A Guide for Teachers. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN. web site:

A helpful source for Earth Science Education Activities and links for K-12 to graduate-level students. This site also includes links to resources for Earth Sciences Courses taught at Purdue University.

Louie, John N. (1996). Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering College of Science, The University of Nevada.

Dr. John Louie's website which provides links to his advanced geology classes (graduate level) and the materials used in those classes by his students. Aside from these links, the site contains links to geophysical research projects.

Uhrhammer, Bob and Bill Karavas (1997). Guidelines for Installing Seismic Broadband Stations.

Guidelines for installation of broadband seismic instrumentation covering the important failure/error points of installation and how to account for issues raised by the installation process.

University of Washington Pacific Northwest Seismic Network

A technical summary of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) Strong Motion Station Installation with a technical needs summary for each component of the install.

Wielandt, Erhard (Nov 2002). Seismic Sensors and their Calibration. Institute of Geophysics, University of Stuttgart

A detailed guide to the theory of Seismic Instruments and their calibration, ranging from basic theory to installation instructions and mechanical calibration. The site offers free seismic monitoring software.

Additional Seismology Resources

Center for Earthquake Research

The United States Geological Survey's Earthquake hazards program Webpage. Here you can get the latest information about recent earthquakes worldwide and peruse recent news releases about earthquake topics. Quick links include: ANSS/GSN, Did You Feel It?, Earthquakes for Kids, Earthquake Topics, ENS-EQ Notification Service, FAQs, Faults, Google Earth Files, 1868 Hayward Anniversary, Preparedness, Publications, Scientific Data, and Seismic Hazard Maps.

Geology: Plate Tectonics

This exhibit explains the history of plate tectonics of the Earth and provides a brief overview of the theories behind it. Interesting animations of the plate motions over the past 750 million years are found here.

National Earthquake Information Center

National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) website which houses global earthquake data available via multiple different search functions including by year and by magnitude.

Plate Tectonics

This website contains the story of plate tectonics, including news articles, journal articles, current research topics, and ocean floor information.

U.S. Geological Survey - Earthquake "Top 10" Lists & Maps

Earthquake top ten lists and maps for the US and the world, including: Deadliest Earthquakes, Earthquake Density Maps, Earthquake Information, Earthquake Statistics, Historic Earthquake list, Largest Earthquakes, Last Earthquake, Seismicity Maps, and Significant Earthquakes since 1977 (M 6.5+).

U.S. Geological Survey - Earthquake Summary Posters Internet web site:

Posters in the USGS Earthquake Summary Poster Series contain multiple panels showing the epicentral area, plate tectonic environment, earthquake history, and generalized seismic hazard of the region covered.

Sea Level Data References

Forrester, W.D. (1983) Canadian Tidal Manual, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa.

This manual discusses the theory of tides and other related concepts including forces, prediction, and meteorological and other non-tidal influences on sea levels. It also contains sections on instruments and precedures.

The COMET® Program (2006). Introduction to Ocean Tides.

This module provides an introduction to the origin, characteristics, and prediction of tides. After introducing common terminology, the module examines the mechanisms that cause and modify tides, including both astronomical and meteorological effects. A discussion of tide prediction techniques and products concludes the module. This module includes rich graphics, audio narration, embedded interactions, and a companion print version.

UNESCO (2006). Manuals and Guides 14, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Manual on Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation Volume IV: An Update to 2006

This is the fourth in the series of IOC Manuals on Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation. It incorporates the changes in tide gauge technology and measurement techniques in the five years since the third manual was written, and includes material from the Workshop on New Technical Developments in Sea and Land Level Observing Systems (UNESCO, Paris, 14 through 16 October 2003).

UNESCO (1985). Manual of Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation Vol. 1-Basic Procedures

The emphasis of this manual is on techniques and on the practical aspects of site selection, maintenance, and critical data reduction. Additional material places these practical considerations in a scientific and engineering context.

University of Tennessee (2007). Lunar tides. From the course, Astronomy 161

A practical guide to lunar tides and sea level. This site explores tides from a simple tidal model to the more realistic tidal model where the earth and moon are not static.

Additional DART Buoy Resources

'Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis.' National Data Buoy Center.

A site devoted to the background and introduction to the Deep-ocean assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) project. The site includes links to real-time DART data as well as an archive of DART data. Retrieved 10/11/2005.

Dever, Ed and Paul Harvey, (2001). 'CoOP/WEST Buoy Deployment and Recovery Procedures.'

Step-by-step instructions for deployment and recovery of CoOP/WEST buoys. Retrieved 10/11/2005.

Gates, P. D., Preston, G. L., Chapman, L. B. Preston. (1998). Roberts, M. (Ed.) (1999). 'Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) Manual: Volume III: Deploying and Maintaining FAD Systems.' Noumea, New Caledonia: Government of Taiwan/ROC.

This is the third and final volume of the series of manuals on fish aggregating devices, or FADs, produced by the Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC). Retrieved 10/11/2005.

Global Tsunami Detection and Warning System Act of 2005, HR 499 IH, 109th Congress, 1st Session Cong. (2005). Retrieved September 23, 2005.

Legislation put forth in the 109th Congress to provide for the development of a global tsunami detection and warning system, to improve existing communication of tsunami warnings to all potentially affected nations, and for other purposes. This bill never became law.

Meinig, C., Stalin, S.E., Nakamura, A.I. and Milburn, H.B. (2005), Real-Time Deep-Ocean Tsunami Measuring, Monitoring, and Reporting System: The NOAA DART II Description and Disclosure.

This paper describes the system components that make up the second-generation Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis system, known as DART II. The technical level of this document is appropriate for engineers and scientists who are skilled and knowledgeable in the fields of marine systems and ocean instrumentation. The purpose of this paper is to support construction of additional deep-ocean tsunami detection and assessment systems, which comprise a critical portion of a tsunami forecast, warning, and mitigation system. Retrieved September 20, 2005.

Morrissey, W. A. (2007). Tsunamis: Monitoring, detection and early warning systems (CRS Report for Congress No. Order Code RL32739). The Library of Congress: Congressional Research Services.

On January 5, 2005, the House Science Committee, the House Coastal Caucus, and the House Oceans Caucus co-sponsored a briefing organized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior whose purpose was to consider possible implications for the United States in the event of a tsunami disaster of the type that occurred in 2004 in the Indian Ocean. Experts from USGS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce delivered presentations about the scientific circumstances surrounding the Indian Ocean tsunami and discussed international capabilities for tsunami monitoring, detection, and early warning. This report documents the information given to Congress. Retrieved June 4, 2008.

Chapter 4: Data and Information Collection References

Earthworm Documentation Version 7.2 (2007) available from U.S. Department of Interior, USGS

Documentation for the Earthworm software (Version 7.2), a seismic processing system.

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (2007): Data Management Center

A repository for seismology software and manuals both supported and not supported by IRIS.

Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System IOTWS. Implementation Plan. (2007) UNESCO

This site provides access to the Implementation Plan for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), which specifies detailed requirements of the design and implementation of the tsunami warning and mitigation system for the Indian Ocean. The Implementation Plan is a dynamic document. In constant use and development, it will only represent the status of the system at a specific time of viewing.

Fourth Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWS-IV), Mombasa, Kenya, 28 February-2 March 2007. UNESCO 2007, (English).

This site provides presentations and documents that describe the outcomes of IOC/IOTWS meetings in 2007.

UNESCO/IOC (2007). Display and Decode of Sea Level Data Transmitted over the WMO Global Telecommunications System. Available on web site:

This document describes the end-user functions of the Tide.tcl software, developed by the US NOAA NWS Pacific Tsunamit Warning Center, when used with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) data. Tides.tcl provides an operational tool for real-time continuous tsunami monitoring in the Indian Ocean. Version 1.1, November 2005.

Chapter 5: Tsunami Detection References

Earthworm Documentation Version 7.2 (2007) available from U.S. Department of Interior, USGS

Documentation for the Earthworm software (Version 7.2), a seismic processing system.

McMillan, John R. (2002). Methods of Installing United States National Seismographic Network (USNSN) Stations: A Construction Manual, Open-File Report 02-144 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 2002.

The pdf document describes the construction of the USNSN seismic vaults. It also explains why some of the features and installation techniques are important. Installation of the electronic equipment, other than seismometers and the interconnected cabling, are not discussed.

National Science Foundation (2003). Review of the Global Seismographic Network.

Available at

Prepared for the Instrumentation and Facilities Program, Earth Sciences Division, National Science Foundation, David Lambert, Program Officer.

Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, PSMSL (2007). IOC Manuals and Guides No. 14: Volumes I-IV, IOC Manual on Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation.

Available at

Volumes I - IV comprise the IOC Manual on Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation. Volume IV is the most recent update, but Volumes I-III still provide useful basic information for people intending to install and operate tide gauges.

Chapter 8: Notification and Dissemination References

National Science and Technology Council (2005). Tsunami Risk Reduction for the United States: A Framework for Action. A Joint Report of the Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction and the United States Group on Earth Observations.

Available at

This report provides a framework for the United States to follow to build tsunami risk reduction into policies by constructing tsunami-resilient communities and through international cooperation. The document closes with a discussion of actions required for a sustained tsunami risk reduction program.

UNESCO/IOC (2006). TsunamiTeacher. Developed and maintained by the International Tsunami Information Center

TsunamiTeacher is a joint project of UNESCO, IOC, and ITIC designed to educate the media, schools, and the public and private sectors about tsunamis and tsunami safety through educational modules depicting the events of the 26 December 2004 Tsunami.

Additional Resources for Notification and Dissemination

Tierney, K. J. Implementing a seismic computerized alert network (SCAN) for Southern California: Lessons and guidance from the literature on warning response and warning systems (2000). University of Delaware Disaster Research Center.

The TriNet/SCAN program plans to disseminate warning messages in a range of different settings, including schools, hospitals, and industrial facilities. This document discusses the lessons and guidance learned from other literature and how it affects the implementation of the TriNET/SCAN program.

Chapter 9: Community Connection References and Resources

Coastal Community Resilience: A Guide for Planning and Action to Address Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards.

The Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) initiative is one component of the US Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) Program. CCR provides a holistic framework to address the increasing risks from coastal hazards and to vulnerable communities living in coastal areas.

Public Outreach/Stakeholder Involvement Resources

Brevard County MPO Public Involvement Evaluation Handbook

This handbook outlines the steps to be taken to evaluate public involvement techniques, identifies measures to quantify success rates, and outlines strategies to improve the Metropolitan Planning Organization's public involvement process.

Getting in Step: A Guide for Conducting Watershed Outreach Campaigns

This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) module offers advice on how local governments, watershed organizations, and others can maximize the effectiveness of public outreach campaigns to reduce nonpoint-source pollution and protect waterways.

Community Culture and the Environment: A Guide to Understanding a Sense of Place

This technical document identified tools and methods for understanding the human dimensions of environmental protection and was designed to provide a means for better understanding community values.

Stakeholder Involvement and Public Participation at the USEPA. Lessons Learned, Barriers and Innovative Approaches

This document presents lessons learned based on the review of formal and informal evaluations of the public involvement process conducted by the EPA.

Engaging the American People. A Review of the EPA's Public Participation Policy and Regulations with Recommendations for Action

This EPA report has information about using the internet, databases, training, evaluations, and innovative involvement efforts, and analyzing agency policies, statutes, and practices

The Model Plan for Public Participation

This report includes critical elements for public participation and also includes a checklist for public participation.

International Association for Public Participation Website

The International Association for Public Participation, working through its members, helps organizations and communities around the world improve their decisions by involving those people who are affected by those decisions.

Participation Tools and Practices Website

This website provides an introduction to some basic participation concepts and offers a brief history of citizen participation in the United States.

Vulnerable Population Resources

FEMA Preparing People with Disabilities Publication

This preparedness booklet, Preparing for Disaster for People with Disabilities and Other Special Needs, from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a supplement to FEMA's Are You Ready program.

How to Engage Low-Literacy and Limited English-Proficiency Populations

This report documents 'best practices' in identifying and engaging low-literacy and limited-English-proficiency populations in transportation decision making.

The Community Preparedness Website Project was undertaken to insure that the needs and concerns of vulnerable populations are addressed in the area of emergency preparedness and response. To achieve this, the PrepareNow website attempts to integrate community-based organizations into emergency planning and management.

HELPU Website

Similar to the PrepareNow site mentioned above, the HELPU website is intended to serve all members of the disabled community, their care-givers, attendants, fire and rescue personnel, and emergency services departments. The site offers numerous pages with tips on emergency/disaster preparedness for various hazards.

National Organization on Disability's Emergency Preparedness Initiative

The National Organization on Disability's Emergency Preparedness Initiative has released this 'virtual binder' of materials related to the National Capital Region Conference on Emergency Preparedness for People with Disabilities.

DOT Emergency Preparedness and Individuals with Disabilities

In response to a 2004 executive order directing federal agencies to support safety and security for individuals with disabilities during disasters, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) launched a web site containing information to help ensure safe and secure transportation for persons with disabilities in the event of a disaster or emergency.

Gender and Disaster Sourcebook

The Gender and Disaster Sourcebook is an electronic compilation of international resources on policy, practice, and research designed to address gender concerns in disaster risk reduction.

Nobody Left Behind Project

This site describes the Nobody Left Behind project, a 3-year study by researchers at the University of Kansas on how 30 U.S. counties and cities identified and planned for people with mobility impairments during disasters.

Women's Participation in Disaster Relief and Recovery

This publication features detailed case studies from three earthquake-stricken areas in India and Turkey that exemplify how low-income women who have lost everything can form groups and become active participants in the relief and recovery process.

Benfield Hazards Research Centre: Disabilities and Disasters

The Benfield Hazard Research Centre developed this Web page on disability and disasters. The primary aim is to identify publications and unpublished material on the subject (in print or online), field initiatives, and people working in the field. An annotated list of publications, outlines of known research and field projects, and details of key contacts will be updated periodically on this web page. This work will be ongoing. Details of publications, initiatives, and people working in the field are therefore welcome.

Ready New York for Seniors and People with Disabilities

This guidebook was prepared by the New York City Office of Emergency Management as part of its ongoing effort to help all New Yorkers better prepare for emergencies.

Risk Communication in Southern California: Ethnic and Gender Response to 1995 Revised, Upgraded Earthquake Probabilities

The purpose of this study was to visit one ethnically diverse community in southern California, gather some preliminary data on the background and initial impact of the revised earthquake probabilities for southern California, and observe the role that the new information handbook played in educating the public of its risk to the earthquake hazard. This report also assessed the response of ethnic and minority groups to the revised warning message, and captured the gender response as well.

Vulnerability Network & Observatory

This site provides an online knowledge portal to link researchers and practitioners in various sectors of the vulnerability field. The 'Document Hotel' contains hundreds of searchable journal papers, reports, and briefing notes that cover a range of topics, including vulnerability, adaptation, climate change impacts, food security, water management, renewable energy, and socio-environmental modeling.

Tsunami Information Resources

International Tsunami Training Institute Archive

This website contains archived information and resources developed for the International Tsunami Training Institute. Resources are categorized into the following categories: Incident Command System, Coastal Community Resilience, Tsunami Alert Rapid Notification System, and Seismic.

American Red Cross Tsunami Webpage,1082,0_592_,00.html

This website includes a variety of tsunami-related information provided by the American Red Cross.

Prepare for Tsunamis in Coastal British Columbia Prepare_for_Tsunami.html

This provincial website provides information on the tsunami hazard including warning and risk information.

California Seismic Safety Commission Tsunami Webpage

This state website provides tsunami-related information for residents of the state of California.

Sitka Tsunami Preparedness Information

This city website provides tsunami-related information for residents of the city of Sitka, Alaska.

Tsunamis in Oregon

This state website provides tsunami-related information for residents of the state of Oregon.

Washington Military Department, Emergency Management Division Tsunami Program Website

This state website provides tsunami-related information for residents of the state of Washington.

Washington Military Department, Emergency Management Division Tsunami Evacuation Brochures

This state website provides tsunami related information for residents of the state of Washington.

Tsunami Teacher

The TsunamiTeacher Information and Resource Toolkit brings together a wealth of new and existing information on tsunamis into a single global resource that is widely accessible to people, groups, and governments around the world. TsunamiTeacher aims to build awareness and the capacity to respond to and mitigate the impact of tsunamis through the sharing of knowledge, research, and best practices.

National Weather Service TsunamiReady Program

This National Weather Service website provides information on the TsunamiReady Program, including application forms as well as publications.

Pacific Disaster Center Tsunami Hazard Webpage

The Pacific Disaster Center's mission is to provide applied information research and analysis support for the development of more effective policies, institutions, programs and information products for the disaster management and humanitarian assistance communities of the Asia Pacific region and beyond.

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Warning Center/

This website provides information on tsunami messages that have been broadcast in the past 90 days.

Wave that shook the world

This Public Broadcasting Service website reconstructs the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in an effort to prepare for the next big one.

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), Asia-Pacific

This website of the United Nations' ISDR provides basic information on disaster risk reduction in the Asia and Pacific Islands region. The region faces a regular and increased frequency of typhoons, tsunamis, floods, droughts, fires, and other natural hazards, and the new website aims to establish an interactive relationship with regional partners throughout the Asian and Pacific region, who are invited to provide information on a regular basis.