Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 3: Global Circulation

Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 3: Global Circulation

At the end of this chapter, you should understand and be able to:

  • Recall the primitive equations of motion and continuity
  • Recall the hydrostatic equation, hypsometric equation, thermal wind equation, and thermodynamic energy equation
  • Estimate divergence and vorticity from streamlines and isotachs using the natural coordinate system of motion
  • Understand basic scaling at low latitudes and balances at low latitudes
  • Describe various models of global circulation and mechanisms that create their pattern
  • Describe the general circulation in the stratosphere
  • Describe the tropical tropopause layer and the role of tropical deep convection in global-scale chemical transport
  • Identify the semi-permanent highs and lows in the tropics and subtropics
  • Recall the seasonal migration of the tropical circulation systems and hemispheric differences
  • Understand and describe the similarities and differences between atmospheric motions in the tropics versus the midlatitudes.
  • Understand the mechanisms that maintain the Hadley cell and its latitudinal extent
  • Describe role of the ITCZ in the general circulation and mechanisms that influence its location
  • Describe Ekman transport and upwelling in the ocean
  • Recall the global upper ocean circulation mechanisms and the major ocean currents
  • Describe the current conceptual model of a monsoon
  • Understand the theoretical basis for the Hadley cell and the Walker Circulation as responses to differential heating in the tropics
  • Understand and describe how the Asian monsoon evolves
  • Compare and contrast the Asian monsoon with other monsoon systems in Australia, Africa, and the Americas
  • Describe the major modes of global monsoon interannual variability and some of the factors that influence that variability
  • Describe the major factors that lead to intraseasonal variability and break periods in the global monsoons
  • Describe the major components of a general circulation model
  • Recall at least two major low-level jets of the tropics