How Models Produce Precipitation and Clouds - version 2

How Models Produce Precipitation and Clouds - version 2
This module, part of the "NWP Training Series: Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process", explores how NWP models handle both grid-scale microphysical (precipitation) and convective processes through parameterizations and/or explicit methods, with an emphasis on how model treatment (and errors in the triggering) of these processes affects forecast depiction of precipitation and related forecast variables. Back in 2000, the subject matter expert for this module was Dr. Ralph Petersen of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center (NCEP/EMC). Revisions to the module were made in 2009 by Drs. Bill Bua and Stephen Jascourt, from the NWP team at UCAR/COMET.