Precipitation Estimates, Part 1: Measurement

Precipitation Estimates, Part 1: Measurement
  1. Define quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE).
  2. List the tools used to measure precipitation.
  3. Explain a drop size distribution (DSD).
  4. Explain a Z-R relationship and its limitations in radar-derived QPE.
  5. Explain how the radar's ability to estimate snow QPE may differ from rain QPE.
  6. Understand the basics of radar-derived precipitation from dual-polarized radar.
  7. Illustrate what is meant by inconsistency in radar sampling and coverage.
  8. Be able to use radar climatology guidance.
  9. Describe the uses and limitations of satellite QPE.
  10. List some of the limitations of rain gauge measurements.
  11. Explain how wind, exposure, and turbulence can influence gauge catch for rain.
  12. Explain how the gauge performance for snow may differ from rain.
  13. Describe other ways to obtain snow water equivalent.
  14. Describe the general strengths and limitations of measurement from automated gauges.
  15. Explain how the strengths and limitations of manual gauge reports may differ from those of automated gauges.
  16. Describe how precipitation climatology may enhance QPE.
  17. Explain some key limitations of precipitation climatology.
  18. Describe weather situations that would likely result in useful estimates from each of the three measurement tools: radar, satellite, and rain gauges.