North Wall Effects on Winds and Waves

North Wall Effects on Winds and Waves
After completing the module, you should be able to do the following: With regard to Synoptic conditions: * Identify the synoptic weather pattern that may result in a North Wall event. * Identify the oceanographic setting that favors a North Wall event. With regard to the marine boundary layer (MBL): * Describe the evolution of the MBL during a cold season North Wall event. * Describe the evolution of the MBL during warm and cold air advection. * Describe the synoptic and oceanographic conditions that lead to an unstable MBL. With regard to winds in the MBL: * Describe how the SST-air temperature difference affects MBL stability. * Describe how MBL stability affects wind speeds at the surface. * Describe why NWP models may have difficulty forecasting accurate surface wind speeds during a North Wall event. With regard to ocean waves during a North Wall event: * List the 3 basic factors that contribute to wave growth. * Assess the reliability of a model wave forecast using a wave nomogram. * Assess the reliability of a model wave forecast using ship and buoy observations. With regard to wave-current interactions: * Describe the wave-current interactions that increase wave heights. * Estimate the changes to swell that occur when it runs into an opposing current. * Describe how waves refract in the presence of current loops and meanders. * Describe conditions leading to rogue waves.