After completing the module, you should be able to do the following:
With regard to Synoptic conditions:
* Identify the synoptic weather pattern that may result in a North Wall event.
* Identify the oceanographic setting that favors a North Wall event.
With regard to the marine boundary layer (MBL):
* Describe the evolution of the MBL during a cold season North Wall event.
* Describe the evolution of the MBL during warm and cold air advection.
* Describe the synoptic and oceanographic conditions that lead to an unstable MBL.
With regard to winds in the MBL:
* Describe how the SST-air temperature difference affects MBL stability.
* Describe how MBL stability affects wind speeds at the surface.
* Describe why NWP models may have difficulty forecasting accurate surface wind speeds during a North Wall event.
With regard to ocean waves during a North Wall event:
* List the 3 basic factors that contribute to wave growth.
* Assess the reliability of a model wave forecast using a wave nomogram.
* Assess the reliability of a model wave forecast using ship and buoy observations.
With regard to wave-current interactions:
* Describe the wave-current interactions that increase wave heights.
* Estimate the changes to swell that occur when it runs into an opposing current.
* Describe how waves refract in the presence of current loops and meanders.
* Describe conditions leading to rogue waves.