Mesoscale Banded Precipitation

Mesoscale Banded Precipitation
After completing this module, the learner should be able to do the following things.

With regard to the general features of mesoscale banded precipitation:
* Recall the operational definition of a precipitation band
* Describe the relationship between instantaneous and accumulated bands of precipitation
* Recall the basic requirements for precipitation and the role of atmospheric stability

With regard to the association between midlatitude cyclones and mesoscale banded precipitation:
* Recall and describe the different types of fronts in the Norwegian cyclone model
* Describe the typical precipitation field associated with each kind of front
* Distinguish an anafront from a katafront in forecast products
* Distinguish a cold occluded front from a warm occluded front in forecast products
* Recall and describe the types of air streams in the conveyor belt model of midlatitude cyclones
* Describe the relationship between air streams and fronts
* Describe the relationship between air streams and mesoscale banded precipitation
* Recognize different air streams in satellite images and forecast products
* Recall what a trowal is and where it occurs
* Describe the relationship between the trowal and banded precipitation
* Describe the trowal signature in forecast products
* Locate a trowal on satellite images and forecast products

With regard to processes that lead to mesoscale banded precipitation.
* Define the terms: deformation, frontogenesis, frontolysis
* Describe how deformation leads to frontogenensis
* Describe the vertical motions associated frontogenesis
* Describe how frontogenesis leads banded precipitation
* Recognize and diagnose deformation and frontogenesis in forecast products
* Describe circulations induced by melting and evaporation in the lower tropsphere
* Describe the relationship between melt/evaporation-induced circulations, frontogenesis, and banded precip
* Recognize and diagnose banded precipitation forced by melt/evaporation-induced circulations in forecast products
* Define frontal merger
* Describe the difference between frontal merger and frontal occlusion
* Describe a typical synoptic setting for frontal merger and its relationship with midlatitude cyclones
* Describe the relationship between frontal merger and banded precipitation
* Recognize and diagnose frontal merger in forecast products
* Describe the relationship between CSI and slantwise convection
* Describe the atmospheric conditions conducive to CSI
* Describe what atmospheric conditions lead to low inertial stability
* Recognize and diagnose CSI and slantwise convection with cross-sectional analysis.

With regard to the simulation of mesoscale banded precipitation by NWP models:
* Given the grid spacing determine the grid resolution
* Describe the characteristics of a hydrostatic atmosphere
* State why high-resolution NWP models need to be non-hydrostatic
* Describe the need for parameterization in NWP models
* Describe the pros and cons of parameterization versus explicit treatment of processes
* Describe the difference between prognostic and diagnostic moisture physics and the benefits of each
* Characterize COAMPS and NOGAPS

With regard to the detection of mesoscale banded precipitation by satellite sensors:
* Describe the benefits and drawbacks of satellite estimates of precipitation
* Recall at least 4 satellite sensors that measure precipitation
* Describe the benefits and drawbacks of the GOES Precipitation Index
* Describe the benefits and drawbacks of precipitation estimates derived from microwave sensors
* Describe how a blended precipitation product is derived