Dynamically Forced Fog

Dynamically Forced Fog
After completing this module, the learner should be able to do the following things: With regard to the general features of dynamically forced fog and stratus: • Describe the differences in boundary layer characteristics and evolution for advection, West Coast, and steam fog in a marine environment • Describe the differences in synoptic environments for advection, West Coast, and steam fog in a marine environment • Describe the relationship of sea surface temperature to fog formation for advection, West Coast, and steam fog in a marine environment With regard to advection fog: • Describe the general synoptic environment that is conducive to fog formation • List at least 2 ways that subtropical high-pressure systems contribute to the formation of advection fog • Describe the evolution of the boundary layer along an air parcel trajectory that leads to advection fog • Describe how sea surface temperature changes along an air parcel trajectory that leads to advection fog • Recall the origins of strong sea surface temperature gradients • On a world map, identify areas prone to advection fog • Recall the seasonality of advection fog With regard to West Coast fog and low stratus: • Describe the general synoptic environment that is conducive to fog formation • List at least 2 ways that subtropical high-pressure systems contribute to the formation of West Coast fog and low stratus • Describe the evolution of the boundary layer along an air parcel trajectory that leads to West Coast fog and low stratus • List at least 2 ways that the boundary layer cools to saturation in a West Coast fog/stratus event. • Recall the role of upwelling in the formation of West Coast fog and low stratus • On a world map, identify areas prone to West Coast fog and low stratus • Recall the seasonality of West Coast fog and low stratus With regard to steam fog: • Describe the general synoptic environment that is conducive to fog formation • Describe the characteristics and evolution of the boundary layer along an air parcel trajectory that leads to steam fog • On a world map, identify areas prone to steam fog • Recall the seasonality of steam fog events With regard to mesoscale influences upon dynamically forced fog: • Describe the effects of coastal topography in fog formation • Describe how coastal jets affect fog formation and dissipation • Describe how sea breezes affect fog formation and dissipation • Describe the impact of local variations in sea surface temperature on fog formation and dissipation With regard to forecasting dynamically forced fog: • Describe the general approach to forecasting fog • List at least 4 critical atmospheric fields to monitor in plan view when forecasting fog • List at least 4 critical atmospheric fields to monitor in vertical profiles when forecasting fog • Describe the limitations of NWP models in fog forecasting