Overall: Explain professional tools and methods, as well as underlying concepts of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and how they are used to achieve accurate and precise horizontal and vertical positioning results.
- Identify the key components of a GNSS system and the function of each.
- Explain the principles of trilateration as used in GNSS-enabled positioning.
- Explain how the receiver determines the identity and location of each satellite using the navigation message and signal-matching.
- Explain the process for estimating pseudorange using PRN code synchronization.
- Describe how estimated position is calculated using pseudoranges.
- Describe how wavelengths are used for precise distance measurement.
- Describe the use of phase measurement and counting cycles to obtain precise distance measurement to the satellite.
- Explain how post-processing services such as NOAA’s OPUS are used to increase accuracy and reduce positioning error.
- Describe different potential error sources in GNSS operation and how they are mitigated:
- GPS satellite and receiver clock errors
- Ionospheric delay
- Satellite orbital errors
- Tropospheric error
- Multipath errors
- Describe a reference frame (or datum) and how it is used in GNSS.
- Describe the process of converting between Cartesian coordinates (X,Y,Z) and positions (latitude, longitude, ellipsoid height).
- Explain why, for most applications, heights should be converted from an ellipsoidal to an orthometric reference frame.