Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition: Chapter 7: Synoptic and Mesoscale Systems

Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition: Chapter 7: Synoptic and Mesoscale Systems

Synoptic systems

  • Describe the basic structure, climatology, and hazards of easterly waves
  • Describe the basis of easterly wave formation and cite at least one region where they form
  • Describe methods of tracking easterly waves
  • Describe basic structure and characteristic weather of tropical upper tropospheric lows
  • Describe the basic structure and lifecycle of subtropical cyclones and the theoretical mechanisms for their transition to warm-core tropical cyclones
  • Describe the basic structure, formation, characteristic weather, and climatology of monsoon depressions
  • Describe the sources, extent, duration, and weather effects of wind surges in the tropics
  • Describe inertio-gravity waves, their generation, evolution, and coupling with convection
  • Explain the formation of Rossby wave trains in the tropics and their impact on mid-latitude weather
  • Describe how the Subtropical Jet, the MJO, and atmospheric rivers combine to affect weather in the mid-latitudes
  • Describe the influence of midlatitude cyclones, fronts, cold surges, and prefrontal troughs on weather in the tropics
  • Describe how tropical synoptic weather is affected by the propagation of Rossby wave energy from higher latitudes

Mesoscale systems

  • Define the mesoscale
  • Explain at least one mechanism of mesoscale instability
  • Describe the ingredients needed for thunderstorms and the ordinary thunderstorm cycle
  • Describe the basics of lightning formation and the distribution of lightning in the tropics
  • Describe thunderstorm downdrafts and their impacts
  • Describe the formation, structure, size, and duration of multi-cellular storms
  • Recall the structure and lifecycles of common modes of tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSs)
  • List the weather hazards most likely associated with different MCS modes/types
  • Identify key environmental features, including large-scale synoptic patterns, that influence MCS initiation and evolution
  • Recognize MCSs in satellite and radar imagery
  • Compare and contrast tropical and midlatitude squall lines
  • Recall the geographic and seasonal climatology of tropical MCSs
  • Describe heating and moisture transport in MCSs and their impact on large-scale circulations
  • Describe the role of tropical MCSs in atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric electricity
  • Describe the formation of thermal circulations (sea/land breeze and mountain/valley breezes) and their impact on mesoscale weather
  • Describe ways in which mesoscale circulations, including thermal circulations, interact with other flows
  • Describe the formation of non-supercell tornadoes
  • Compare the characteristics of waterspouts, tornadoes, and dust devils
  • Describe the formation of super-cell tornadoes in the tropics (rare but high impact phenomena)
  • Recall global tornado climatology