This lesson is an update to the 2008 expert lecture on hyperspectral observations presented by Dr. Mitch Goldberg, Program Scientist for NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program. The lesson discusses what hyperspectral observations are, how they are made, some current products, their contributions to improved monitoring of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces, as well as their impact on numerical weather prediction. The lesson begins by discussing the importance of satellite observing systems. From there, it reviews the principles of remote sensing that are needed for deriving products from hyperspectral infrared observations. The third and largest section of the lesson examines results from and operational applications of the AIRS, IASI, and CrIS hyperspectral sounders. The final section discusses the importance of hyperspectral soundings from geostationary satellites. The lesson has been updated from the original presentation to include information about NASA and NOAA's new polar orbiting programs and CrIS, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on the Suomi NPP polar orbiter.